Chastisement occurs for the sake of the person punished (the one that is subjected to it), whereas punishment for that of the punisher (he who imposes it).
For chastisement is said of the former because it prevents his irrational impulse, while punishment is said of the latter in that he will be satisfied. It is because he wishes to fulfill his desire to distress reciprocally the person that had formerly enraged him that he punishes, since wrath is a desire with regret for conspicuous punishment on account of a conspicuous and unbecoming contempt towards what concerns oneself or towards what concerns one’s friends.
Therefore, father and teacher mostly chastise while lord and law punish.
Written, translated by George Kotsalis